The Shahadah is the basic creed or tenet of Islam.  He abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. It is said that Muhammad rejected the offer and prayed for the guidance of the people of Ta'if. Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (Author). , The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE.   In the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam, burial is to take place in unmarked graves. The Banu Hawazin were old enemies of the Meccans. Islamic tradition states that in 620, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous night-long journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel. cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p. 166, Apart from this one-day lapse, which was excised from the text, the Quran is simply unrelenting, unaccommodating and outright despising of paganism." They interpreted the biography through a Christian religious filter, one that viewed Muhammad as a person who seduced the Saracens into his submission under religious guise.  Influenced by the Buddhist tradition of representational religious art predating the Mongol elite's conversion, this innovation was unprecedented in the Islamic world, and accompanied by a "broader shift in Islamic artistic culture away from abstraction toward representation" in "mosques, on tapestries, silks, ceramics, and in glass and metalwork" besides books. Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion. At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan. The Roman–Persian Wars between the two had devastated the region, making the empires unpopular amongst local tribes.  He, along with his followers, settled in Medina (then known as Yathrib) a large agricultural oasis, where he was the leader of the first Islamic theocracy. From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam, Alford Welch - cf. In the year 632, Muhammad became infirm with severe head pain and weakness. He then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Banu Hashim. Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo, Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr). The description given in Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi's book Shama'il al-Mustafa, attributed to Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hind ibn Abi Hala is as follows:. He had thick, curly hair. Tribal affiliation, whether based on kinship or alliances, was an important source of social cohesion. With the death of Abu Talib, leadership of the Banu Hashim clan passed to Abu Lahab, a tenacious enemy of Muhammad. In this sermon, Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs. Furthermore, in the lands that would be conquered by Muslims many Christians (Nestorians, Monophysites, Jacobites and Copts) were disaffected from the Eastern Orthodox Church which deemed them heretics. News of Uthman's safety allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh.
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